Hysteresis: In example let us take a solution made up of products of which the percentage varies with the temperature. We consider that the system is reversible and perfect. First case we use current mathematical modeling and thus we will have for an always given temperature the same proportions of product some is the direction of variation in the temperature. Second case, we use the mathematical modeling which I propose and in fact according to direction's of variation in the temperature the proportions of products will be different at equal temperature. In fact the exponential analysis explains the phenomena of hysteresis met. Author Andre p.j. Example applied to data experimental: Law of the extension and comprehension: To form a general idea, it is necessary to remove the differences to preserve only the resemblances. It follows from there that the more one generalizes, the more one removes differences, i.e. of distinctive natures; in other words, more one increases the numbers of subjects contained under the same idea, more one decreases the number of their attributes, which one expresses as follows: the extension of a general idea is because reverse of its comprehension. A German logician, Drobisch, which sought to express this law in a mathematical form, found that the preceding report/ratio is not precisely that of the reciprocal ratio, but that, ( while the extension grows or decrease according to a geometric progression, comprehension grows or decrease according to an arithmetic progression .) Uberweg, Logik, p. III. Text of Paul Janet Electricity: Let us take the typical case of the condenser. The known and measured laws, shows us well that the condenser passes from a potential to another while following exponential laws, therefore without zero. In example, if we supply a condenser using a square signal, the potential with the terminal of the condenser will describe two kinds of curve, that depends if it stores electrons or if it rejects electrons. In the first case the formula Q = P (1 - exp(- t/RC)) In the second case the formula is Q = P (exp (- t/RC)) with Q potential of capacitée with P potential of the generator of the square signal with R property the strength of capacity interns and with C characteristic of possibilitée of emagaziner of capacitée. Chemistry Physics Text to propose with the coffee philo of Montpellier: The ZERO DOES NOT EXIST IN SCIENCE Why an assertion and not an assumption? Because I present a demonstration by the cause, affirmative, and universal (the best according to Aristote), which was already recognized by several people; but the doubt remains open as long as this assertion was not subjected to the controversy, method prescribed by Kant. The construction of the text which follows is made by stages. These stages have bond only the required goal and are independent the ones of the others. 1° Some quotations: a) - Law of the extension and comprehension: To form a general idea, it is necessary to remove the differences to preserve only the resemblances. It follows from there that the more one generalizes, the more one removes differences, i.e. of distinctive natures; in other words, more one increases the numbers of subjects contained under the same idea, more one decreases the number of their attributes, which one expresses as follows: the extension of a general idea is because reverse of its comprehension. A German logician, Drobisch, which sought to express this law in a mathematical form, found that the preceding report/ratio is not precisely that of the reciprocal ratio, but that, (while the extension grows or decrease according to a geometric progression, comprehension grows or decrease according to an arithmetic progression.) Uberweg, Logik, p. III. Text of elementary Paul Janet Treated of philosophy b) - There is moreover a specific biological time of the age: it is Lecomte of Nouy which realized, during the war of 14-18, which the wounds of the young casualties healed more quickly than those of oldest. It connected the physiological age and the speed of cicatrization by a function logarithmic curve. Source: Lecomte of Nouy P.: "Time and Life", 1 vol., Gallimard éd., Paris, 1936 c) - Ex nihilo nihil, although this sentence became the maxim of the epicureans, it was already to lend to old by ancient Greece. The translation of it is "nothing does not come from nothing" d) - The legend wants that Antoine Laurent de Lavoisier is the father of modern chemistry and that alchemy was swept by its work. It makes of him a solitary man carrying out a scientific revolution vis-a-vis at an institution linked against him and the author of the famous law "nothing loses himself, nothing is not created". However, if it is well at the origin of the fall of the theory of the phlogistique one, it seems not very probable that he is the author of the "law of Lavoisier". Moreover, according to certain historians, it rather seems a scientist established well in the scientific community where it has, obviously, of combined and the enemies. It does not remain about it less than work of Lavoisier was of great importance in the history of chemistry. source: infoscience.fr/histoire/portrait/lavoisier e) - many poets described this concept of time continuous but nonlinear. In example Marcel Pagnol which speaks about the summers of its childhood. Here some testimonys among so much of others which prove the universality of this thought over time. A thought which says that to equal level of a feeling or a measurement of variation an equal level of the rotation of the ground around the sun does not correspond (linear system which is our base of time). 2° philosophical or formal logic Logique. Since philosophy is the research of the first causes and the first principles; and since the first principle of any reasoning is the identity principle, more known under the name of "omne subjectum is proedicatum sui", the principle which an identity cannot vary in a reasoning; and since still the zero represent nothing by definition. I do not think that one can grant to the zero contents other than nothing. This shows possible the mathematical evolution to consider. 3° Développement of the first two paragraphs. a) observation 1°: It is not because a method of analysis is exceeded by a new method of analysis which it does not function at all. In example in antiquity the astronomers had predicted the exact positions of planets, with as guiding principle that the ground was the center of the universe. The easy way was the use of weightings, the equivalent of our current constants. b) observation 2°: If I reason in exponential mode and if I use the exponential system to measure time; with like departure the origin of each phenomenon; then the zero will not appear any more in science. The principal current problem is that the exponential mode is represented using a linear system which is our current reference. This reference prevents any logical reasoning in exponential mode, of share its construction on the zero. The solution would be to change reference. c) observation 3°: It is certain that the followers of Machiavel will react against a proposal which develops the individual, because this creates against being able with a social dictatorship. d) 1° application or logic applied: I) We have the things or matter, and the phenomena. The principal difference between the two is that one persists and that the other is an image which appears or disappears, because a phenomenon needs a thing to appear. In this reasoning time is a phenomenon. II) One hour for a ten hour old child represents a tenth of its life, whereas one hour for a sixty twelve year old person does not certainly represent the same proportion. III). More one benefits from time, which results in more we have new experiences; more we have the impression to miss time to be able to analyze the events. Thus more the value of one second A of importance, plus time seems to us short; what is a paradox. e) Application 2 or mathematical demonstration: this method of analysis enabled me to control the navigable channel of Beaucaire with Nourriguier; this method enabled me to write and characterize a number without dimension on curves in considered biologies as impossible to write;Cette method mathematically makes it possible to say that the first moments of each new experiment a time tending towards the infinite one lasts; and this method enabled me to write in 1993: "the assumption is that time for the man and the majority of the physical phenomena that I met, varies in an exponential way of first order. That is to say x(t) = K (1 - Exp(- t/jo)) For the man - With X = biological time - With K = the age of death - With jo = depends on the genetics " f) In conclusion: In are conclusion, which the controversies of this thought based on formal logic? And which are the limits of applications of this thought? Author Andre p.j. Hypothesis on time |